ECT compensation standard for treaty breaches to ensure consistency and predictability in future ECT cases.   Article 13 of the ECT: A Limited Scope of Application Like other analogous treaty-based…

The investment protection mechanism in the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) is meant to, among other things, promote, attract, and protect foreign investments in the member states’ energy sectors. In 2018,…

ECT, may provide the claimant with other alternatives for enforcement within the EU.   The arbitration award as a possession in the case law of the ECtHR All EU Member…

…more equally accessible. The solution I proposed is what I have termed the “International Arbitrator Information Project,” a project that would aim to provide reliable, online one-stop-shopping for information about…

…intra-EU disputes under the ECT? With respect to the ECT as currently in force, the European Commission takes the position that the CJEU’s Achmea judgment also applies to the arbitration…

…Standards and Technology (“NIST”) issued a Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cyber security. The framework defined high-level goals of any cyber security risk management program. Identify, Protect, Detect, Respond, and…