…2018 European Court of Justice judgment (Achmea case), where the Court found that investor-State arbitration clauses in [intra-EU BITs] are incompatible with EU Treaties.” The road the EU has taken…

…of intra-EU BITs, the EC has already experienced some success. Ireland and Italy ended all of their intra-EU BITs in 2012 and 2013, respectively. When other Member States were hesitant…