Deep sea mining regulation is an extremely young field of international law. Recently, there have been some important evolutions in the debate around the contractual and environmental rules that will organize the exploitation of mineral resources in the areas of the seabed beyond the continental shelf – hereafter referred to as “the Area”. Nevertheless, few…

Based on the panel discussion moderated at the 30th Annual ITA Workshop and Annual Meeting, with panelists Lorraine de Germiny, Robert Landicho, and Laura Sinisterra.   While there are more than 3,000 international investment agreements (IIAs), the majority of them fail to provide guidance as to how issues of human rights and environmental protection should…

The potential clash between protection of investors under investment treaties and protection of the environment has emerged in a number of recent arbitrations. More than 60 investment disputes filed since 2012 have had some environmental component. Amongst them, there have been several cases in which States have sought to enforce environmental law against investors in…