corruption, among other grounds. Ultimately the Tribunal held that there were insufficient red flags directly related to the concession agreement and rejected the corruption allegations. This award demonstrates that the…

…tribunal acknowledged that corruption alleged by Egypt was generally against international bones mores. Nonetheless, the tribunal observed that Egypt had not provided evidence concerning the alleged corruption. Crediting the evidence…

…to grapple with issues such as finding suitable methods of applying international conventions on corruption and the possibility of establishing the existence of corruption with the concept of red flags….

…ruled out as inconclusive and unproven, although discussed in the award. Establishing corruption A number of tribunals have notoriously observed that corruption is difficult to prove. Allegations of corruption traditionally…

corruption in domestic and international affairs than ever before. France has indeed significantly strengthened its anti-corruption framework since adopting the so-called “Sapin II” law in December 2016, introducing mandatory anti-corruption

…in France would violate international public policy since the relevant contract was tainted with corruption. After an analysis of the facts, the Court concluded that corruption had not been proven….

…of bribery and corruption offenses. Given these global developments, it is unsurprising that corruption defenses have become more common in international investment arbitration, and often these corruption investigations occur in…

…accepting the corruption defense invoked by the host states and the allegations of corruption as proven. No matter how outrageous the host states’ conduct toward the investors were in the…

…it relates to arbitration, it raises several interesting topics, including (i) the way the Tribunal handled the evidence related to acts of corruption and (ii) the intervention of third parties…

…the failure of a State to comply with its international obligations, including the obligation to effectively combat bribery and corruption. Furthermore, the commission of an economic crime by an investor…

…Regardless of the many instances where corruption is alleged, there have been only a few investment cases in which a finding of corruption was actually made. Arbitral tribunals made findings…