…advisory depending on the specific treaty. For example, the new United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (“USMCA”), the Free Trade Commission could submit its interpretation on the treaty provision, which will be binding…

…and through their manifestation at the regional and bilateral level, as was evident from our coverage of the new dispute settlement paradigms established by the USMCA and ECT modernization process….

…from investment treaty-making confirm this, including the USMCA, CPTPP, the EU’s investment agreements with Canada, Singapore and Viet Nam, ACIA, and the China-Hong Kong CEPA (which altogether eschews investor-state arbitration…

…of Central America-Korea FTA (2018), Article 9.18 of CPTPP, Article 3.4 of EU-Singapore IPA (2018), Article 10 of Kazakhstan-UAE BIT (2018), Article 14.D.2 of USMCA (2018). While the use of…

…investors under international investment agreements. For example, the United States Mexico Canada Agreement (the “USMCA”), which replaced the North American Free Trade Agreement (“NAFTA”) on July 1, 2020, removed investor-State…

…Canada Agreement (USMCA), considerable modifications have been introduced to dispute settlement mechanisms regulated therein. In addition to the US, the EU has been actively promoting its model and the reform…