…from investment treaty-making confirm this, including the USMCA, CPTPP, the EU’s investment agreements with Canada, Singapore and Viet Nam, ACIA, and the China-Hong Kong CEPA (which altogether eschews investor-state arbitration…

…and through their manifestation at the regional and bilateral level, as was evident from our coverage of the new dispute settlement paradigms established by the USMCA and ECT modernization process….

…9.16 of Central America-Korea FTA (2018), Article 9.18 of CPTPP, Article 3.4 of EU-Singapore IPA (2018), Article 10 of Kazakhstan-UAE BIT (2018), Article 14.D.2 of USMCA (2018). While the use…

…investors under international investment agreements. For example, the United States Mexico Canada Agreement (the “USMCA ”), which replaced the North American Free Trade Agreement (“NAFTA”) on July 1, 2020, removed…

…United States, Mexico and Canada Agreement (USMCA), considerable modifications have been introduced to dispute settlement mechanisms regulated therein. In addition to the US, the EU has been actively promoting its…