security” interests, while still affirming substantive protections, by placing certain limits on the exercise of essential security measures. Although the broad essential security provision may remain in TPP, the United…

…sophisticated arguments on the allocation of the costs. The only well recognized principle in costs allocation is that Arbitral Tribunals have discretion on decisions on costs. As a result, the…

…Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union BIT (1977) which expresses the concept as “continuous protection and security”. Accordingly, the FPSS may be referred to as “constant protection and security”, “continuous protection and security”,…

…consolidation of proceedings, allocation of costs and security for costs, timely rendering of awards and consistency of ICSID annulment decisions. The proposed amendments help to address most of these issues,…