…Article 4 TFEU. Recent examples of such treaties include the EU-Singapore IPA and the EU-Vietnam IPA. Following the Court of Justice of the European Union’s judgment in Achmea on 6…

Achmea case]” (para. 87). The General Court’s decision was appealed by the Commission before the Court of Justice on 27 August 2019. In parallel, the Micula brothers lodged applications for…

…remains to be seen how tribunals will handle cases of a threats of expropriation. Of particular interest will be the decision in the pending dispute between Achmea v. Slovak Republic…

…arbitration. The initial investment dispute arose between the Dutch insurance company Achmea, the claimant, and the Slovak Republic, the applicant. The claimant invested in the applicant’s health insurance sector after…

…the CJEU’s Achmea judgment, EU investors cannot invoke the ECT against Member States anymore. Moreover, the Member States proclaimed that arbitral tribunals have lost their jurisdiction to hear intra-EU ECT…

…in light of well-known developments in Europe pertaining to investor-state arbitration,16) See, e.g., Laurens Ankersmit, “Achmea: the Beginning of the End for INVESTOR-STATE ARBITRATION in and with Europe?”, Investment Treaty…

Achmea case. Pioneer steps have already been taken in several BITs towards the creation of permanent investment bodies with notably, Chapter 8, Section F of the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and…